The key which unlocks the door to the mystery of “the daily” is Daniel’s application of counterfeit cultic language in chapter 8. The ram, the goat, the horn, the daily (hattamid), the sanctuary (miqdash) are representative cultic symbols taken from Leviticus and Numbers but which have counterfeit cultic significance in Daniel 8. Verification of the counterfeit significance comes from the initial clue that the ram and the goat represent pagan world powers. Furthermore, the cultic language of the phrase, “from him the daily was lifted up” in Daniel 8, in conjunction with similar and parallel cultic phraseology in Leviticus, defines a counterfeit priest, a counterfeit sacrifice, and a counterfeit hattamid in Daniel 8.
The identification of “the daily” (hattamid) depends on the answer to the pivotal question upon which the exegesis of Daniel 8:11 revolves: “What is the antecedent of the pronoun ‘him’ in the phrase ‘from him the daily was lifted up’?” Is the antecedent “the Prince of the host” or “the one exalting himself”? A definitive answer to this pivotal question comes from the cultic language parallels in Leviticus where the priest lifts up the fat from the cultic beast sacrifice. The cultic-counterfeit cultic parallel of Leviticus with Daniel 8, respectively, demands that “the daily” be lifted up from the cultic horn/beast power (the one exalting himself in 8:11), since the prince of the host intrinsically manifests no cultic significance.
The hattamid lifted up from the cultic horn in Daniel 8 and the fat lifted up from the cultic sacrifice in Leviticus are linked together by the sweet aroma associated with the burning of the fat of the cultic sacrifice and the sweet aroma of the daily (hattamid) burnt offering. “The daily” (hattamid) and the sweet aroma are consistently linked together in Leviticus by “the daily” burnt offering, “the daily” grain offering, “the continual” bread, and “the perpetual” incense all of which are associated with the daily worship cycle. The counterfeit sweet aroma of hattamid is the self-exalting character associated with all pagan worship practices.
Moreover, the incorrect identification of “the daily” as the positive, beneficial high priestly ministry of Christ creates a counterfeit thesis-antithesis between Daniel 8:11 and Daniel 8:14. That which is good is taken away in 8:11 (thesis) and restored in 8:14 (antithesis). This would necessitate a commencement date of the 2300 years no earlier than AD 300 with a termination in AD 2600. This conclusion decimates the “putting right” and the cleansing of the sanctuary commencing in 1844, the foundational pillar of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The correct identification of “the daily” as the negative self-exalting character of paganism inherent in mankind precludes a counterfeit thesis-antithesis between Daniel 8:11 and 8:14. The genuine thesis-antithesis exists between Daniel 8:13 and Daniel 8:14 where the positive and beneficial sanctuary (qodesh) is trampled for 2300 evening-morning (years) commencing in 457 BC and “put right,” restored and cleansed commencing in 1844 with the termination of the 2300 years. With both the genuine thesis-antithesis and the correct view of “the daily,” the 2300 years of Daniel 8, commensurate with the activity of the horn associated with “the daily,” become self-consistent with the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 and 457 BC.
This exegesis of Daniel 8:9-14 has established multiple lines of self-consistent evidence demonstrating that “the daily” is the self-magnifying character of Satan and the world kingdoms under his banner. This contravenes the current position of Adventist scholars that the “daily” is Christ’s high priestly ministry. A summary of specific evidence supporting this conclusion includes:
- The thematic parallelism of oscillating gender in verses 9-12 following the pattern A:B::A’:B’ was identified. This established the roles of pagan and papal Rome in verses 9 and 10 (masculine/feminine) respectively which is repeated in verses 11 and 12. This laid the initial foundation for identifying “the daily”. Confirmation of the significance of the initial pagan/papal identification by gender distinction was established by evidence derived from the counterfeit cultic symbols and language of Daniel 8 summarized above.
- One of the pivotal issues in identifying “the daily” involved the determination of the antecedent of mimmennu (from him) in verse 11: “and from him the daily was lifted up”. The unusual inverted sentence structure of v.11 and the internal reflection following the pattern: A:B::B’:C in which mimmennu reflects gadal (the one exalting himself) demonstrated the direct linkage of the antecedent with the “one exalting himself”. This eliminated the alternative choice of “the Prince of the host” as the antecedent. The antecedent of mimmennu was also confirmed with counterfeit cultic language of Daniel 8:11 and its parallel with the cultic language of Leviticus.
- The integrity of the cognitive quality of rum, meaning to lift up or exalt, was established in Dn. 8:11 as well as Leviticus and the entire OT. The contrasting meanings of rum and sur (“to take away” or “remove”) were demonstrated not only in Leviticus but also in Daniel 8, 11 & 12. The correct use of rum argues against the “new view” of the “daily”.
- Daniel’s repeated characterization of the world powers in Dn. 8 with the term gadal meaning “to exalt oneself” and its linkage with the “daily” (hattamid) in v. 11 resulted in the identification of hattamid with the self-exalting behavior against God by all pagan nations.
- It was established that tamid is used in a pagan context in the OT associated with the “continual” rising up against God by pagan nations. This supports its similar application in Daniel 8.
- It was demonstrated that miqdash, with a high degree of probability, may refer exclusively to an earthly sanctuary which may be holy or pagan in nature. Irrespective of whether miqdash refers exclusively to an earthly sanctuary, the transcendent issue demonstrated is that miqdash often designates a pagan, unholy earthly sanctuary. Qodesh, on the other hand, always represents holiness and may be associated with the heavenly sanctuary or God’s earthly sanctuary. Miqdash in Dn. 8:11 represents the sanctuary of the pagan Roman power, located in the city of Rome.
- In Dn. 8:11, makon connotes the sense of habitation or dwelling (of his sanctuary in the city of Rome) which was also demonstrated for all its other uses in the OT. In 8:11 the habitation or place (city of Rome) of his sanctuary was cast down or removed to Constantinople.
- It was demonstrated that a host or army was given to the papal power in v. 12 “by transgression” which represented a union of church and state. Thus, Clovis with his army acted in behalf of the papacy who was claiming to act for God.
- The compound subject in v. 13 of “the daily and the transgression” represent two phases of a single entity exhibiting a singular behavioral characteristic of self-exaltation (gadal). The “daily and the transgression which desolates” span the entire length of the vision of Daniel 8.
- The singular participle shomem (“which desolates”) modifies the compound subject of v. 13 . The desolating activity of “the daily and the transgression” results from the self-exalting behavior of the religio-pagan powers in Daniel 8.
- It was demonstrated that the cultic language of Dn. 8:9-14 possesses counterfeit cultic significance. The key which unlocks the door to this issue is the cultic symbol of the ram representing counterfeit cultic activity. The cultic term, “evening-morning” was shown to have counterfeit cultic significance in Daniel 8:14 implying 2300 years of counterfeit worship exhibiting counterfeit light or truth, a counterfeit christ, and counterfeit incense or humility.
- It was demonstrated by linguistic and contextual evidence that the explanation of the vision (mare`h) in Dn. 9:24-27 encompassed not only the commencement of the 2300-year period with the 70-week prophecy but also the “utter end” of earth’s history analogous to the world-kingdom visions of Dn. 2, 7, 8, and 10-12. The continuity of “desolations” (v. 26) spans the entire length of the vision including the 70 weeks “even until an end of war” which is equivalent to the “desolating” activity continuing until the utter end in v. 27. The desolating activity (shomem) is parallel to that of Dn. 8:13 with “the daily and the transgression”.
- In Dn. 11:31 the military aspect of miqdash as a fortress of paganism is readily apparent in contrast to God’s sanctuary. The “taking away” (sur) of the “daily” is associated with the action of Clovis in behalf of the papacy. Thus, the action in 11:31 is linked with the host or army given to the papacy against the “daily” in 8:12.
- The 1290-year (AD 508-1798) time prophecy for the commencement of the taking away of “the daily” provides the lock-tight evidence that “the daily” (hattamid) cannot pertain to Christ’s high priestly ministry. No significant event associated with the heavenly ministration of Christ occurred in AD 508. Only the action of Clovis in behalf of the papacy against the “continual” self-exalting behavior of pagan and Arian forces occurred in AD 508.
- In summary, based on the evidence of this exegesis, “the daily” may be defined as a principle manifested in the self-exalting character of paganism inherent in mankind of which Arianism became integrated. “The abomination which desolates” may be defined as the self-exalting character of nominal Christianity of which papal Rome became the fountain head. Nominal Christianity surpasses, supersedes and transcends all other false religious systems of the world. It is the principal religious force and the largest religious bloc in the world today constituting 33% of the world’s population, twice the size of the second largest bloc, the Muslims at 17%.(133) “The abomination which desolates” is paganism with a nominal Christian face.
Our exegesis of the “daily” in Daniel is diametrically opposed to current Adventist scholarship which destroys the integrity of the 2300 years terminating in 1844. In a like manner, current Adventist scholarship destroys the integrity of “the daily” in Daniel 8 interconnected with the 1290-year time prophecy of 12:11. The self-consistent methodology of this exegesis resolves the linguistic and contextual anomalies associated with “the daily” in Dn. 8:9-14 and retains the original pristine beauty of the 2300-year vision of Daniel 8 pointing to 1844 and the “cleansing of the sanctuary” in order to prepare and “put right” (sadaq) a remnant people for translation at the second coming of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the world.
133) D. Barrett, Ed., World Christian Encyclopedia, Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1982.
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