From a surface examination of cultic language and activity parallels in the previous tables, there appears to be no cultic-counterfeit cultic connection between the fat which is lifted up from the cultic sacrifice and the daily (hattamid) which is lifted up from the cultic beast sacrifice in Dn. 8:11. The following discussion will establish the relationship and the connecting link between the up-lifted fat and “the daily” which is lifted up. Throughout the discussion it must be recognized that when the priest lifted up the fat from the sacrifice to the altar of burnt offering, it was burned as incense and always resulted in a sweet aroma to Jehovah (e.g. see Lev. 3:5, 16; 4:10; 4:31; 17:6; Num. 18:17).
7.1.1 The Burnt Offering. The continual burnt offering is first described in Ex. 29:38-46 and consisted of two lambs, one each offered in the morning and evening along with the grain (food) offering and drink offering. It was a sweet aroma to Jehovah and it was a reminder that He would meet with the children of Israel, that the tabernacle would be sanctified by His glory, that He would dwell with them and that Jehovah redeemed them from Egypt to dwell among them. It may be observed that the adjective, tamid (daily), describing the burnt offering is connected with the sweet aroma (Ex. 29:41-42).
Further instructions for the continual burnt offering are given in Lev. 6:8-13 where the fat of the peace offerings is burned together on and with the burnt offering itself (6:12) both of which were a sweet aroma to Jehovah. The simultaneous burning of the fat of the peace offering upon the burnt offering itself as a sweet aroma to Jehovah is also specifically directed by God to Moses in Lev. 3:3-5 and performed in Lev. 9:22-24 (see also Lev. 8:25-28). It is noted that the detailed description of the burnt offering in Lev. 6:8-13 suggests that the burnt offering commenced in the evening. “This is the law of the burnt offering; it is the burnt offering on the hearth on the altar all the night until the morning and the fire is kept burning on it” (6:9). In the morning the ashes were removed and the fire was kept burning with new wood every morning followed by a new burnt offering in the morning (6:12). In Ex. 29:39 and Num. 28:4, it is simply stated that one lamb is offered in the morning and the other lamb offered in the evening which does not necessarily imply a commencing-ending sequence. Conversely, the description of the evening-morning sequence is a prominent feature in Lev. 6:9-12. The importance of the evening-morning sequence will be discussed in Section 8.2, “The Cultic Significance of 2300 evening-morning.” The third description of the daily burnt offering appears in Num. 28:3-8 which is nearly identical to that in Ex. 29:38-46. Again the burning of the continual (tamid) burnt offering along with the food offering results in a sweet aroma to Jehovah (Num. 28:6).
7.1.2 The Grain Offering. The grain offering (minchah) represented a gift to God which expressed submission and dependence. Originally signifying a gift to any superior, “at the time of Sinai minchah became the official designation for a gift to God, a gift of homage, an acknowledgment of the superiority of the One to whom the gift was given.” Thus, man showed himself to be a steward of the things entrusted him.(78)
The grain offerings could be either private, voluntary offerings of individuals (see Lev. 2) or the continual grain offering, a public offering made before Jehovah (Lev. 6:14-23) in the same way that the burnt offering could be private or public (Lev. 6:8-13; Num. 28:3-8). For the public grain offering (Lev. 6:14-23), the priest lifted up a handful of fine flour from the grain offering with its oil and frankincense which was burned on the altar as a sweet aroma to Jehovah. The private, individual grain offering was offered by the priest in a similar manner and for the same purpose (Lev. 2:2, 9).
The law of the grain offering (minchah) in Lev. 6:14-23 consisted of a tenth of an ephah of flour as a continual (tamid) grain offering, half in the morning and half at night for a sweet aroma to Jehovah. Again it may be observed that the flour as a daily (tamid) grain offering is connected with the sweet aroma to Jehovah (6:20-21).
Finally the burnt offering was combined most frequently with the grain offering as a sweet aroma to Jehovah.(79) The two male lambs as a tamid (daily) burnt offering were always combined with the flour as a daily grain offering for a sweet aroma to Jehovah (Num. 28:4-8; 29:6). Again the connection of the tamid (daily) is observed.
7.1.3 Hattamid/Sweet Aroma Connection. The Hebrew word hattamid (the daily) never occurs in the OT as an isolated substantive without adjectival designation except for the five occurrences in Daniel (8:11, 12, 13; 11:31; 12:11). Hattamid appears 16 times in the book of Numbers and twice in Nehemiah but always with adjectival designation in three configurations: the daily burnt offering (15 times); the daily grain offering (2 times); and the continual bread (1 time).(80)
220.127.116.11 Hattamid Burnt Offering. In the cultic worship symbolism of Numbers, hattamid is most frequently connected with the daily burnt offering (14 of 16 occurrences which all appear in Num. 28 & 29). As previously described, two male lambs were offered as a tamid (daily) burnt offering which were a sweet aroma to Jehovah (Num. 28:1-8). Although the adjective tamid is used, the context of Num. 28 & 29 where hattamid is specifically used 14 times make it clearly understood that this represented the daily (hattamid) burnt offering. In Num. 29:6 hattamid is directly connected with the sweet aroma of the daily burnt offering.
18.104.22.168 Hattamid Grain Offering. The grain offering is directly connected with hattamid only in Num. 4:16; but it is linked with the daily (hattamid) burnt offering in 11 occurrences in Num. 28 & 29.(81) Specifically in Num. 29:6 the daily (hattamid) burnt offering is combined with the grain offering (hattamid grain offering is implied) which are both linked in the offering as a sweet aroma to Jehovah.
22.214.171.124 Hattamid Bread. Hattamid is used only once in adjectival designation of the bread (continual bread) or bread of presence or shewbread in Num 4:7. However the preparation of the bread of the tabernacle, described in Lev. 24:5-9, included frankincense which was placed on the bread for a memorial offering made by fire to Jehovah. The bread was set before Jehovah continually (tamid) every Sabbath with the frankincense which was burned as an offering to Jehovah. The burning of the frankincense (sweet aroma implied) in effect made the continual bread an offering made by fire to Jehovah (24:7-9).
The foregoing discussion establishes the linkage of hattamid with the sweet aroma in the cultic worship setting of Leviticus and Numbers. The linkage is established without exception in all 16 occurrences of hattamid whether it is the burnt offering (14 times), the grain offering (1 time) or the continual bread offering (1 time). Furthermore, the use of tamid with the continual burnt offering in Num. 28:3, 6 & 23 and the grain offering in Lev. 6:20 also establishes the linkage of tamid with sweet aroma of these offerings. Moreover, it has been established that the sweet aroma is also linked with the fat lifted up from the cultic beast offerings which was always burned as incense to Jehovah on the altar of burnt offering. A similar linkage of the sweet aroma with the grain offerings was also established. Thus it is seen that the memorial portion (fat or fine flour) lifted up from the cultic offering may be equated to hattamid which is also associated with the cultic offerings by the connecting link of the sweet aroma illustrated in the diagram below.
The cultic beast sacrifice in Leviticus has its counterfeit parallel with the cultic beast symbolized by the horn in Daniel 8. Likewise, the fat lifted up from the cultic sacrifice in Leviticus and burned as a sweet aroma has its counterfeit parallel with the cultic hattamid lifted up from the counterfeit cultic beast power (horn from littleness).
It now has been established that the cultic hattamid in Leviticus and Numbers is always linked with the sweet aroma associated with the cultic sacrifice made by fire to Jehovah. Hence, it appears that it can be concluded with certainty that the link which connects the fat lifted up from the cultic beast sacrifice in Leviticus with hattamid lifted up from the counterfeit cultic beast power (horn) in Dn. 8:11 is the sweet aroma. Thus, the counterfeit cultic hattamid in Dn. 8 is identified as a counterfeit sweet aroma. Moreover, the identification of a counterfeit hattamid in Dn. 8:11 as being equivalent to a counterfeit sweet aroma confirms that the antecedent mimmennu (from him) in Dn. 8:11 is not the Prince of the host but is none other than the horn exalting himself against the Prince of the host.
78) F. D. Nichol, Ed., Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, Washington, DC: Review & Herald, Vol. 1, p. 719 (1978).
79) See Lev. 23:13, 18; Num. 15:3-10; 28:13, 27-28; 29:2-3, 8-9, 13-14, 36-37.
80) See Num. 28:10, 15, 24, 31; 29:6, 11, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 38; Num. 4:7, 16; Neh. 10:33 (2 occurrences).
81) See Num. 28:31; 29:6, 11, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 38.
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